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1)           One of the major strengths of developing theory through Grounded Theory methodology is

a)           the discovery of action and process.

b)           existing theory drives the research process.

c)           data serve as one important source for theory formulation, but not central to the research process.

d)           the exclusive use of focus groups as the primary data gathering technique.


2)           Which of the following is true about the literature review in grounded theory?

a)           It is exhaustive

b)           It develops an interest in the topic and stimulates questions

c)           It helps build an argument for hypotheses and lay the foundation for the study

d)           All of the above are true


9.       The constant comparative process suggests that

a.            researchers compare their findings to the body of published research within the focus of study.

b.           continually seeking outside sources ensures that objectivity is preserved during the research process.

c.            checking out a research idea with other ideas that have been researched prevents duplication of findings.

d.           emerging themes are held up to the data to strengthen validity of the findings.


10.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true about theory

a.            It provides a basis for action

b.           It is applicable only within the context of the particular research study

c.            It accounts for consistency and variation

d.           It has both explanatory and predictive power


11.    Grounded theory utilizes focus coding

a.            To help develop categories based on emerging themes

b.           Which is the same as selective coding

c.            Enables the researcher to reduce the number of categories

d.           All of the above

e.           a & c


12.        Which of the following most accurately represents how objectivity is viewed through the Grounded Theory approach?

a.            The researcher influences what is observed.

b.           The job of the researcher is to organize and accurately render the participants’ story which is also shaped by the researcher’s experience.

c.            Objectivity is maintained through reflexivity.

d.           A and B.

e.           All of the above.


13.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding Grounded Theory

a.            It is a systematic quantitative methodology

b.           It emphasizes the generation of theory from data during the research process

c.            Data collection occurs prior to determining the theoretical foundation of the study

d.           All of the above are true


14.    With regard to the method of inquiry and theory,

a.            Theory is used deductively to test hypotheses in qualitative methodology

b.           Theory is used inductively and starts with a general area of interest in qualitative methodology

c.            The assumption in Grounded Theory is that researchers and what they study mutually influence one another

d.           All of the above


15.    Which of the following research ideas would be best suited to the use of Grounded Theory?

a.            Relationship between birth order and treatment for depression

b.           The efficacy of a program to increase undergraduate retention rates

c.            The impact of years of clinical experience on measures of compassion fatigue among counselors

d.           Counselors’ perceptions of working with transgendered clients


16.        Checking for outliers, using extreme cases, weighing the evidence, and getting feedback from informants are all examples of

a.            Saturation

b.           Sorting

c.            Ensuring trustworthiness of the findings

d.           Analyzing the data


17.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true related to data in Grounded Theory

a.            Everything is data

b.           Data generated for interviews is the most valuable

c.            Behavioral observation is not useful to Grounded Theory research

d.           All of the above are true


18.    Concepts integral to Symbolic Interactionism include

a.            Reality is a constructed phenomenon

b.           Reality is based on symbols

c.            People are dynamic, resourceful, and reflective in nature

d.           Roles and the concept of self is socially constructed


19.    Phenomenological researchers do ALL BUT WHICH of the following?

a.        View people and their world as inextricably linked

b.       Observe interaction between person and world

c.        Manipulate the variables in the interaction between person and world

d.       Focus on the essence of lived experience


20.    A primary rationale for utilizing qualitative designs in the field of counseling is

a.        Qualitative designs are easier to replicate for future research

b.       The skills taught in counselor training programs are useful in this form of research

c.        Researchers who use qualitative methods typically receive larger funding opportunities

d.       Quantitative research has lost the respect of the profession in recent years


21.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are primary roles of the phenomenological researcher

a.        To be the primary instrument of data collection and analysis

b.       To be the voice of reason during contentious group interviews

c.        Being open to biased values and beliefs in themselves

d.       Validate the perspective of the participants


22.    Which of the following is not true about phenomenological research?

a.        Participants are considered co-researchers

b.       Participants must protected and remain anonymous

c.        Criterion sampling is employed

d.       Random sampling methods are employed


23.    Participant profiles

a.        Present data in context

b.       Can present comparisons among participants

c.        Create a narrative about categories

d.       a & b only

e.       all of the above


24.    Group interviews offer phenomenological researchers

a.        The opportunity to legitimize findings

b.       Ways to expedite the research process

c.        Impersonal methods of data collection

d.       All of the above


25.    The observer who organizes information according to time dimensions is known as

a.        The reflecter

b.       The stopwatch

c.        The abstracter

d.       The baseliner


26.    The observer who is drawn to participant speech is known as

a.        The reflecter

b.       The interacter

c.        The abstracter

d.       The baseliner


27.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding phenomenological research?

a.        The researcher’s background may pose limitations to the research

b.       All qualitative research involves a recursive pattern of data collection, interpretation, modification, and further collection

c.        Reducing the data results in what is known as the essence of the experience

d.       The interviewer-participant relationship is irrelevant to the process


28.    Trustworthiness in phenomenological studies refers to

a.        The soundness of the research

b.       The credibility and transferability of the research

c.        Applicability of findings

d.       a & b only

e.       All of the above


29.    The concept of dependability in phenomenological research is similar to ____________ in other forms of research

a.        Cross-cultural awareness

b.       Methodological issues

c.        Reliability

d.       Validity


30.    A primary advantage of phenomenological research is

a.        Time

b.       Opportunity for participants to gain insight and feel heard

c.        Ease of implementation

d.       Information gleaned is concise

31.    Survey research is generally conducted for ALL BUT WHICH of the following purposes

a.        To identify problems or concerns

b.       To make comparisons or evaluations

c.        To support current practices

d.       To capture the lived experience of participants


32.    A community counseling program coordinator in a CACREP master’s program surveys graduating students annually regarding program perceptions. This is most closely aligned with which survey research design?

a.        Trend

b.       Cohort

c.        Panel

d.       Cross-sectional

33.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are advantages to electronic surveys over pencil and paper surveys

a.        Completed surveys are automatically stored in electronic format

b.       Survey data is automatically analyzed for the researcher

c.        Access to larger as well as more culturally diverse samples

d.       Ease and speed of administration


34.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding the use of interviews in survey research

a.        High degree of interaction between researcher and participants

b.       Psychological connection between researcher and participant results in increased depth of information

c.        The participants are free to make additional comments

d.       They are less expensive than other means of survey research


35.    Which of the following is most true about survey design

a.        The researcher can allow the research questions to evolve throughout the process

b.       Methodological decisions are contingent on the research questions addressed by the survey

c.        Sampling procedures are consistent across survey designs

d.       All of the above are true regarding survey designs


36.    The most important component in survey research is

a.        Developing the research questions

b.       Determining sample size

c.        Determining data analysis methods

d.       Designing survey items


37.    “How did you decide to move to this area?” is an example of

a.        an open question

b.       a closed question

c.        a question appropriate for interview only

d.       a question appropriate for pencil and paper only


38.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are methods to increase survey response rate

a.        Ensure invited participants are knowledgeable about the subject

b.       Determine and implement follow-up procedures

c.        Give each participant a chance on a DVD player

d.       Be sure to not pre-notify so that participants will respond reflexively


39.    Some limitations of survey research include

a.        It does not determine causation

b.       Heavy reliance on self-report

c.        Bias is inherent

d.       All of the above


40.    A researcher is interested in studying rural farmers’ opinions about cooperative extension services. The researcher is aware that the majority of the target population is lower socio-economic status. The best method of survey for this project is

a.        Mailed

b.       Electronic

c.        Both are equally applicable

d.       Neither is a justifiable method with this population


41.    ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding the use of focus group interviews in survey research

a.        Participants are selected because of their knowledge about the topic

b.       Participants can offer all opinions in the discussion format of focus groups

c.        It is relatively straightforward to determine group consensuses

d.       Non-verbal behaviors can be noted


42.    Good interviewers who conduct research are able to

a.        Build rapport with participants

b.       Alter the questions to suit the moment

c.        Interject their own opinions to help draw out the opinions of others

d.       Both a & b


43.    First drafts of surveys are typically amenable to pilot testing prior to review by others.




44.    Survey research is a form of descriptive research




45.    Cost is not a factor in determining survey research design




46.    Cross-sectional designs are the most common in survey research




47.    A rule of thumb for survey design is to keep the wording as simple as possible.




48.    A 75% response rate is necessary for survey research to be considered valid.



62.    Action research may be best utilized when counselors want to

a.            improve their counseling practice

b.           showcase the results of a counseling program

c.            determine a need and a solution

d.           all of the above  


63.    Ozanne and Saatcioglu posit that connecting all types of action research are four principles. These principles  include all but which of the following

a)       A use of scientific methods with an emphasis on field methods

b)       A cyclical process with problem identification, data collection and analysis, reflection on the data, and a revised action plan informed from the previous research cycle

c)       A weighted power dynamic between researcher and participants, where researchers are seen as experts

d)       Mutual agreement between researcher and participants about a problem and its solution for the research project to be deemed successful


64.    Which of the following is the first step of action research?

a.            Collect and analyze data

b.           Reflect on the results

c.            Interview stakeholders

d.           Identify a focus or problem area


65.    A primary difference between empirical research and action research is

a.            Empirical researchers aim to remain independent of the research situation

b.           Empirical researchers are often embedded in the research context

c.            Action researchers aim to remain independent of the research situation

d.           None of the above are differences between empirical research and action research


66.    An example of an action research question is

a.            Is homework or classwork more effective in teaching pre-algebra concepts to middle schoolers?

b.           How do I change my anger management group to better meet the members’ needs?  

c.            What is the relationship between mental health and coping styles among pregnant women?

d.           Are preschool girls more likely to choose dolls that are racially or ethnically similar to them?


67.    When looking into action research themes, Somekh and Zeichner (2009) found several themes including all but which of the following

a.            Political reform

b.           University-led reform

c.            Professor reform

d.           School reform


68.    Action research is best conducted using the following designs

a.            qualitative

b.           quantitative

c.            mixed methods

d.           all of the above


62.    Kurt Lewin, who developed the term action research, developed all but which of the following goals for action research

a.        To advance knowledge by contributing to the research base of theory and social sciences

b. To ensure counselors are practicing ethically with their clients

    1. c) To improve a situation by making sure that the participants are left in a better position after study 
    2.   d) To disseminate the research through peer-reviewed journal articles and related periodicals 


70.    The cyclical practice of action research follows which pattern

a.            Fact-finding, exploratory action, planning, and evaluation

b.           Planning, exploratory action, evaluation, and fact-finding

c.            Exploratory action, fact-finding, planning, and evaluation

d.           Fact-finding, planning, exploratory action, and evaluation




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