Philosophy Video Review Question Assignment

Philosophy Video Review Question Assignment

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Be prepared to answer the questions below, and remember the criteria from the syllabus for satisfactory posts. Be sure you have a minimum of 200 words in your posts, that you have edited your posts well, and that they are mature, thoughtful, and answer the questions. Your posts must be submitted in the appropriate discussion post section.

Take good notes, as all of your notes may be used to help you with the weekly quizzes.

Justice has primarily been linked with fairness; to be just is to be fair. Aristotle spoke of justice as treating equal things equally and different things differently. But all of this oversimplifies justice.

Justice is one of the most important concepts in ethical and political philosophy, but it is not a simple concept.

Traditionally, justice has meant getting what you deserve (or justice as desert), which was meant to maintain fairness in the distribution of benefits and burdens. Philosophy Video Review Question Assignment

There are at least four other dimensions of justice relating to the distribution of benefits and burdens: (1) distribute benefits and burdens according to effort, (2) according to need, (3) equally, and (4) based on social contribution.

Rawls raises serious questions about the notion of justice as merit or desert.

Effort is different from merit, even though Sandel seems to blur the line between the two: a student can put in a lot of effort on an assignment, but do a poor job. Does justice mean paying attention to the quality of the work and what the student deserves based on quality, or should the student simply get a good grade for effort? Marxist and socialist ideas often focus on justice based on need: a society should seek to give all its citizens what they need. At a birthday party, justice is met by giving all the children equal portions of the cake. Justice focused on social contribution raises serious questions, for example, concerning why teachers get paid so little but some athletes make more in a year than what a teacher can make in a lifetime. The argument is that teachers contribute more to the society by nurturing young children than athletes do by playing their sport, so they should receive more of the benefits than they currently do. Philosophy Video Review Question Assignment

Also, there are different types of justice: justice as retribution (retributive justice), distributive justice (John Rawls), fair processes and procedures (procedural justice), and restorative justice (seeking to repair harms after an injustice, so the community heals).

Also, we have to look at how we justify justice in criminal contexts, and this overlaps with the points above: (1) retribution (inflicting punishment), (2) restoration (restoring goods to those who lost them), (3) deterrence (discouraging future wrongs), (4) reform (improving the offender), and (5) protection (protecting the public).

Episode 7: According to John Rawls, principles of justice are whatever principles would be agreed to behind a “veil of ignorance,” where no one knows his or her age, sex, race, intelligence, strength, social position, family wealth, religion, or even life goals. If we were unaware of these particular facts about ourselves, we would not propose social rules designed to give ourselves an unfair advantage over other people. Therefore, according to Rawls, the principles we would agree to behind a veil of ignorance would be fair and just. (A) Was Rawls right? Do you agree or disagree with Rawls? Explain your answer. (B) According to Rawls, principles of justice are whatever principles we would all agree to govern our society if we were ignorant of our personal qualities and therefore unable to take advantage of one another. Is this the right way to think about principles of justice? Should we abstract from our personal qualities, strengths, and aspirations in choosing principles of justice to govern our society? (C) “A just law is blind to the differences between people, and treats everyone equally.” Do you agree? Why or why not? Philosophy Video Review Question Assignment

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